Medicine

Uses of Natural Products

·         As medicines for the treatment of a wide range of diseases, e.g. morphine, atropine, digoxin, hormones, antibiotics ·         As pharmaceutical aids in pharmaceutical industry e.g. suspending & emulsifying agents, suppository bases, binders, sweetening and colouring agents ·         In cosmetics as flavouring and colouring agents ·         In culture media for the propagation of microorganisms in …

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Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS

·        The common tests for diagnosing HIV/AIDs include: ELISA Test — ELISA, which stands for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is used to detect HIV infection (detects antibodies against HIV-1)and is both highly sensitive and specific §  If an ELISA test is positive, the Western blot test is usually administered to confirm the diagnosis. If an ELISA …

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Clinical Presentation of HIV/AIDS

·         In the absence of ART, disease progression goes through the following clinical stages o   Primary Infection or becoming HIV Infected §  Most primary infection, i.e. new infection with HIV, usually is not immediately noticed. §  It presents with short illnesses and flu-like symptoms such as fever, malaise, enlarged lymph nodes, sore throat, skin rash, …

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Pathophysiology of HIV/AIDS

·         The virus through its envelope proteins attaches to the CD4 receptor and co-receptors found on the surface of T lymphocytes and macrophage to gain entry to the host cells. ·         Following entry of the HIV into a susceptible host cell using the enzyme reverse transcriptase, the viral genome copies itself from RNA to DNA …

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Drugs that qualify for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

The following are drugs that qualifies for TDM ·         Cardio active drugs o   amiodarone, o   digoxin, o   digitoxin o   disopyramide, o   lignocaine, o   procainamide, o   propranolol and o   quinidine ·         Aminoglycoside o   gentamycin, o   amikacin o   tobramycin ·         Antidepressants : o   lithium o   tricyclic antidepressants ·         Antiepileptic drugs o   Phenytoin, o   phenobarbitone o   benzodiazepines, o   …

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