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· Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and occasionally by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium africanum
· These micro-organisms are also known as acid-fast bacilli (AFB) because of their staining characteristics
· TB is transmitted from one person to another through inhalation of droplets during;
o Coughing which is the most common means of transmission
o Sneezing, and singing
· Untreated smear-positive patients who are in the community are the potential source of infection.
· The concentration of infected droplets in the air and the length of time a person breathes that air determines an individual’s risk of exposure.
· TB can be grouped into two main types: pulmonary and extra-pulmonary.
· The most common form is pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), which accounts for 80% of all cases of TB.
o PTB is infectious, and affects the lungs.
· Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) affects organs other than the lungs, and is non-infectious.
o EPTB accounts for 20% of all cases of TB.
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