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Clinical diagnosis of TB involves a careful and extensive history-taking, which includes asking the patient questions relative to symptoms suggestive of TB disease:
· Prolonged fever, cough (with or without haemoptysis),
· Weight loss
· Haemoptysis – Cough out blood (once or recurrent)
· Cough (dry/productive sputum)
· Night sweats
· Early identification of TB cases and putting them on effective treatment is important in TB care and control.
· Diagnosis of PTB depends on the identification of tubercle bacilli either by sputum smear microscopy or culture and identification of bacterial DNA using molecular techniques
· There are two common methods for the detection of AFB in clinical specimens:
o The Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) technique using bright field microscopes, and
o The Auramine O technique using light-emitting diode fluorescence microscope (LED FM)
· Chest x-ray may be very useful as a screening tool for PTB.
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