Diagnosis of Tuberculosis

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Clinical Diagnosis
Clinical diagnosis of TB involves a careful and extensive history-taking, which includes asking the patient questions relative to symptoms suggestive of TB disease:
·         Prolonged fever, cough (with or without haemoptysis),
·         Anorexia,
·         Weight loss
·         Haemoptysis – Cough out blood (once or recurrent)
·         Cough (dry/productive sputum)
·         Fatigue
·         Night sweats
Laboratory diagnosis
·         Early identification of TB cases and putting them on effective treatment is important in TB care and control.
·         Diagnosis of PTB depends on the identification of tubercle bacilli either by sputum smear microscopy or culture and identification of bacterial DNA using molecular techniques
·         There are two common methods for the detection of AFB in clinical specimens:
o   The Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) technique using bright field microscopes, and
o   The Auramine O technique using light-emitting diode fluorescence microscope (LED FM)
·         Chest x-ray may be very useful as a screening tool for PTB.
 Doctor Pointing X-ray Result Beside Man Wearing Black Suit
References

Wells BG, DiPiro J, Schwinghammer T (2013), Pharmacotherapy Handbook (6th Ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey ML, (2008): Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach (7th ed): New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Katz M D., Matthias KR., Chisholm-Burns M A., Pharmacotherapy(2011) Principles & Practice Study Guide: A Case-Based Care Plan Approach: New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Schwinghammer TL, Koehler JM (2009) Pharmacotherapy Casebook: A Patient-Focused Approach (7th ed): New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

 

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