Month: November 2019

Pathophysiology of Pneumonia

·         Microorganisms gain access to the lower respiratory tract by three routes. o   Through inhalation as aerosolized particles, or o   via the bloodstream from an extrapulmonary site of infection; o   Aspiration of oropharyngeal contents which is a common occurrence in both healthy and ill persons during sleep is the major mechanism by which pulmonary pathogens …

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What is Pneumonia?

Pneumonia ·         Pneumonia is the inflammation of the lung tissue. ·         Pneumonia can either be primary (to the causing organism) or secondary to pathological damage in the respiratory system ·         It occurs in persons of all ages, although the clinical manifestations are most severe in the very young, the elderly, and the chronically ill. ·         …

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What is Acute Otitis Media?

·         The term otitis media is an inflammation of the middle ear. ·         There are three subtypes of otitis media: o   acute otitis media, o   otitis media with effusion, and o   Chronic otitis media. ·         The three are differentiated by onset, signs and symptoms of infection, and the presence of fluid in the middle ear. …

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What is Acute Sinusitis?

Sinusitis is an inflammation and/or infection of the paranasal sinuses, or membrane-lined air spaces, around the nose. The term rhinosinusitis is used by some specialists because sinusitis typically also involves the nasal mucosa. Even though the majority of these infections are viral in origin, antibiotics are prescribed frequently. It is thus important to differentiate between …

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Pharmacological Treatment of Pharyngitis

The goals of treatment for pharyngitis are to; ·         Improve clinical signs and symptoms, ·         minimize adverse drug reactions, ·         prevent transmission to close contacts, and ·         prevent acute rheumatic fever and suppurative complications, such as peritonsillar abscess, cervical lymphadenitis, and mastoiditis Monitoring of  Pharyngitis Therapy ·         Most pharyngitis cases are self-limited; however, antibiotics hasten resolution …

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Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis of Pharyngitis

General ·         A sore throat of sudden onset that is mostly self-limited ·         Fever and constitutional symptoms resolving in about 3 to 5 days ·         Clinical signs and symptoms are similar for viral causes and nonstreptococcal bacterial causes Signs and Symptoms ·         Sore throat ·         Pain on swallowing ·         Fever ·         Headache, nausea, vomiting, and …

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Pathophysiology of Pharyngitis

·         The mechanism by which GAS causes pharyngitis is not well defined ·         Asymptomatic pharyngeal carriers of the organism may have an alteration in host immunity (e.g., a breach in the pharyngeal mucosa) and the bacteria of the oropharynx, allowing colonization to become an infection ·         Pathogenic factors associated with the organism itself may also …

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What is Pharyngitis?

·         Pharyngitis is an acute infection of the oropharynx or nasopharynx. ·         It is caused by virus and bacteria ·         Viruses cause the majority of acute pharyngitis cases o   Specific etiologies include rhinovirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and Epstein-Barr virus ·         Group A β –hemolytic streptococci (GAS; also known as …

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Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis of Leprosy

The diagnosis of leprosy The diagnosis of leprosy relies on both passive and active case-finding. Clinical diagnosis. This is achieved through observation of signs or symptoms of leprosy which includes; ·         One or more pale or reddish, hypo-pigmented patch(es) on the skin with diminished or loss of sensation. ·         Painless swelling or lumps in the …

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